Some researchers like @vergauwe2017 use charisma as an umbrella term for a set of personality traits such as assertiveness, openness and even narcissism.1

In my mind, personality doesn’t necessarily mean it’s genetic… but rather a result of our socialisation and upbringing.

@antonakis2016 et al., on the other hand, claim that charisma is an external attribution, something someone else says about you instead of a characteristic that lives inside you.


  1. There are some more papers on this topic, mentioned in @niebuhr2020, p. 3.