• people who see each other face-to-face gesture more than while talking on the phone
    • frequency increases
  • also: people who aren’t talking to anyone, e.g. talking into a dictaphone, gesture less
    • what about recording something we know is going to be used again, once or multiple times?
    • talking to yourself? in a mirror?
    • if you want to be useful, you gesture more
  • why do people gesture even when talking to themselves or if they know other’s can’t see them?
    • helps them understand what they’re trying to say
    • embodiment theory?
  • shared gaze necessary to gesture? giving visual feedback?
  • “helping” competitively vs cooperatively (If you don’t already know, I’m certainly not going to show you!: motivation to communicate affects gesture production by Hostetter, Alibali and Schrager)
    • you learn something, e.g. the rules to a game, and have to explain/teach them to someone
    • people gesture the same amount but with differing qualities if they want to make sure the other person understands because they’re on their team

Gestures Expressed by Children who are Congenitally Deaf-Blind: Topography, Rate, and Function

by Susan Bruce et al.

  • conventional gestures in seven congenitally deaf-blind children, range of communicative functions doesn’t seem to limited (6-13, some idiosyncratic behaviour, some with unconventional association → not typically found in combination with that gesture)
    • Cheek A., Cormier K., Repp A., & Meier R. (2001). Prelinguistic gesture predicts mastery and error in the production of early signs. Language, 77, 292–323.
    • Iverson J., Tencer H., Lany J., & Goldin-Meadow S. (2000). The relation between gesture and speech in congenitally blind and sighted language learners. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 24, 105–130.

Lack of Visual Experience Affects Multimodal Language Production: Evidence From Congenitally Blind and Sighted People

by Mamus et al. 2022

Compared to sighted people, blind people’s speech focused more on path and less on manner of motion, and encoded paths in a more segmented fashion using more landmarks and path verbs. Gestures followed the speech, such that blind people pointed to landmarks more and depicted manner less than sighted people. This suggests that visual experience affects how people express spatial events in the multimodal language and that blindness may enhance sensitivity to paths of motion

Gestures as Cues to a Target
by Leonard Talmy

  • targeting gestures → cue who is meant

Comparative feedback: Cultural shaping of response systems in interaction
by Stephen Levinson, Penelope Brown

  • the word I was searching for: GAZE

Blinking as addressee feedback in face-to-face conversation
by Paul Hömke et al

  • mutual gaze → provide visual feedback, replacing verbal feedback (nod, smile) → does blinking have a similar effect?