class of models for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. “Typically information is defined in terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of knowledge”.

“D” – data, “I” – information, “K” – knowledge and “W” – wisdom


Rowley, Jennifer (2007). “The wisdom hierarchy: representations of the DIKW hierarchy”. Journal of Information and Communication Science. 33 (2): 163–180. doi:10.1177/0165551506070706. S2CID 17000089.